Country-code TLDs are generally run by the country to which the TLD is delegated, unless the country has further delegated operational authority to another entity. Each ccTLD operator is permitted to establish the rules and policies governingwhen and to whom it will permit registration of domain names.
Each ccTLD operator also has the option to provide for dispute resolution. Some ccTLDs have adopted the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) in its entirety. The UDRP was the first dispute resolution policy for domain names and many policies copy substantially from it. If a ccTLD has drafted its own policy, whether that policy is based on or substantially similar to the UDRP, the ccTLD will specify the provider that may hear and resolve those disputes. The Forum may only accept claims for ccTLDs for which Forum is named. Many ccTLDs have no dispute policy, require that disputants contact the registry for assistance, or require that the dispute be filed in a particular court.
Disputes may not be filed across different policies. For instance, if you have a dispute over a .com domain name and a .us domain name, two complaints must be filed as different policies are implicated.
Determining which ccTLDs have adopted the UDRP, which have adopted their own variant, and which are silent is complex. The list below is a list of many ccTLDs that have adopted the UDRP. This list is always subject to change and potential parties should research the current status of a ccTLD's dispute resolution policies before deciding upon how to proceed.
Many Policies and Rule require Complainant to notify Respondent of the Complaint using a Complaint Transmittal Cover Sheet. You can download that form here.
Below is a list of ccTLDs that have adopted ICANN's UDRP and associated providers. Complaints may be filed with Forum for domains registered in these TLDs.
.AG (Ascension Island)
.AS (American Samoa)
.CC (Cocos Islands) .CF (Central African Republic) .CO (Colombia) .CY (Cyprus)
.DJ (Djibouti) .EC (Ecuador) .FJ (Fiji) .FM (Federated States of Micronesia)
.KI (Kiribati) .KY (Cayman Islands) .LA (Lao People's Democratic Republic) .LC (Saint Lucia) .MD (Republic of Moldavia)
.ME (Montenegro) .ML (Mali) .MP (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands)
.MW (Malawi) .NR (Nauru) .NU (Niue) .PA (Panama) .PK (Pakistan) [with permission from PKNIC]
.PR (Puerto Rico) .PW (Palau) [also has adopted URS] .RO (Romania) .SC (Seychelles)
.SL (Sierra Leone) .TJ (Tajikistan) .TK (Tokelau) .TT (Trinidad and Tobago) .TV (Tuvalu)
.UG (Uganda) .VE (Venezuela) .VG (British Virgin Islands) .WS (Samoa)
|Policy Name||TLD(s)||Links||Forms||File / Respond|
|The usDRP is used to request cancellation or transfer of .us domain names that infringe the complainant’s trademarks. It is strikingly similar to the UDRP with two key differences: (1) the addition of a factor under Policy paragraph 4(c)(i) and (2) the use of the disjunctive “or” rather than “and” in the bad faith element under usDRP 4(a)(iii).|
|The usNDP is used to enforce the United States Department of Commerce requirement that all registration of .us domain name have a Nexus to the United States. Decisions made under usNDP are not public and are not available in the decisions database.|
|usRS||.us||File your complaint online|
|The United States Department of Commerce has adopted a variation of ICANN’s URS for .us domains. As with .usDRP, a key difference is the use of “or” for the bad faith element. usRS complaints are filed online, via the link provided. Responses are filed online via an encrypted link sent to the Respondent in an email when the case commences. Refer to the instructions for more information. For demonstration screens depicting the user experience, visit the Forum’s URS page.|
|The .ME-UDRP is used to dispute domain name registration that infringe trademarks in the .me ccTLD. The .ME-UDRP is virtually identical to the UDRP.|